Read e-book online Ancient Jewish and Christian perceptions of crucifixion PDF

By David W. Chapman

ISBN-10: 3161495799

ISBN-13: 9783161495793

David W. Chapman examines moment Temple and early rabbinic literature and fabric continues to be with a view to reveal the variety of old Jewish perceptions approximately crucifixion. Early Christian literature is then proven to mirror expertise of, and interplay with, those Jewish perceptions. historical Jewish ancient debts of crucifixion are tested, magical literature is analyzed, and the proverbial use of crucifixion imagery is studied. He can pay distinct cognizance to Jewish interpretations of key outdated testomony texts that point out human physically suspension in organization with execution. prior stories have confirmed how pervasive in antiquity was once the view of the move as a negative and shameful demise. during this quantity, the writer offers extra proof of such perspectives in historical Jewish groups. extra confident perceptions may be connected to crucifixion insofar because the dying can be linked to the blameless patient or martyr in addition to with latent sacrificial photos. Christian literature, proclaiming a crucified Messiah, betrays understanding of those quite a few perceptions by way of trying to reject or rework adverse stereotypes, or via embracing a few of these extra confident institutions. hence early Christian literature at the go shows, to a better measure than is usually famous, a mirrored image upon many of the Jewish perceptions of the move in antiquity

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Mentioned in Theodor N ö l d e k e , Neue Beiträge zur semitischen Sprachwissenschaft (Strassburg: Karl J. Trübner, 1910), 198n. T h e cultic idea forms the central thesis o f A . S. Kapelrud, "King and Fertility," 1 1 3 - 2 2 . That these people were given over to the Lord (as in the ban) has been affirmed b y Timothy R. Ashley, The Book of Numbers, N I C O T (Grand Rapids: E e r d m a n s , 1993), 5 1 8 . Milgrom contends that, while îTlîT implies a ritual at the sanctuary, TftTVh indicates a "nonritualistic dedication to the Lord outside the sanctuary"; see Jacob Milgrom, Numbers, JPS Torah C o m m e n t a r y (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1990), 2 1 3 .

Fifth, Baumgarten's distinction between halakhic and haggadic exegesis misses the point in his discussion of t. Sanh. 7. In that passage, Rabbi Meir compares Deut 21:23 to a story of two twin brothers, one of whom is cruci­ fied. hardly suffice to prove that in the legal exegesis of the time Deut. " This is true. The story of R. Meir, though occurring in a legal context, does not make a legal point. However, it does associate crucifixion with the hanged person Ç^bri) of Deut 2 1 . And thus it provides evidence that the Hebrew word Tlbn (and especially nbn in Deut 21:22-23) can be understood to designate crucifixion.

So Halperin in fact contended that the phrase KO'p r n ^ S in this Targum is a reference to crucifixion. As noted above, Baumgarten makes reference to a single manuscript (MS De Rossi 31) that reads ΝΊΤΙΟ πρ^ΠΊ ("and the stran­ gulation of the s c a r f ) in agreement with the Mishnaic halakhah, thus suggesting to him that KO'p Γ Π ^ Ε was just an alternative means of strangu­ lation. However, apart from the scant support, internal criteria would suggest that this one manuscript is actually seeking to bring the Targum back into agreement with the Mishnah (or at least back into agreement with Ruth Rabbah 2:24 [on Ruth 1:17] which reads pjm).

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Ancient Jewish and Christian perceptions of crucifixion by David W. Chapman

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