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By Innocentius Marie Bochenski

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Nd, consequently, their negations, (2) quantified and non-quantified sentences, (3) negative sentences and negation of sentences. The very fact that Aristotle himself reasons in Met I' according t o the false principle r. N Sap 3 SeP suffices to show how great the difficulty must have been to get a clear theory on those points. However, Aristotle was able to overcome these initial confusions almost completely. Out of his early doctrines we shall take one only for special attention, the theory of four opposites (oivtr6Loaeis).

44 ARISTOTLE of syllogisms only. He discovered the variable: but his very text shows how the passage from a letter as shorthand for a name slowly changed into a variable; even so, it looks as if he never a t all realized himself that he was dealing with variables. 8 B. MEANING AND IMPORT OF THE SENTENCES There are two points concerning syllogistic sentences which have often been misunderstood and must be briefly mentioned here. e. as meaning class-inclusion ; but if one considers what he himself says about the meanings of the copula (cp.

Post. - 21 An. ASSERTORIC SYLLOOISTIC 47 (which are never stated, however) and on the laws of the conversion which Aristotle stated and tried to axiomatize (9. 41-43). He proceeds as follows: given a mode of the form ‘pq 3 r 1 and a law of conversion rs 3 p’ he gets a mode of the form rsq 3 T I ; he actually says: as r s l converts into rp1, out of rsq 3 r1 we get ‘pq 3 T I . 1 which are stated explicitly in a generalized form (11. 63), and on the laws of the opposition (9. 20-31). e. the antecedent of a valid syllogism rpq 3 r 1 ; we get, consequently, rr1; now this entails - by a law of the theory of opposition (9.

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Ancient Formal Logic by Innocentius Marie Bochenski

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