By David W. Phillipson
David Phillipson offers an illustrated account of African prehistory, from the origins of humanity via eu colonization during this revised and accelerated version of his unique paintings. Phillipson considers Egypt and North Africa of their African context, comprehensively reviewing the archaeology of West, East, principal and Southern Africa. His ebook demonstrates the relevance of archaeological learn to realizing modern Africa and stresses the continent's contribution to the cultural historical past of humankind.
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Erectus/ergaster (Asfaw et al. 2002). This period, again one when arid conditions prevailed (de Menocal 1995), is of particular signiﬁcance because of the archaeological evidence, to be discussed below, for the earliest use of tools. 0 million years are very fragmentary. Homo may have evolved from an australopithecine such as A. afarensis (Tobias 1980; A. C. Walker and Leakey 1993; Klein 1999). The earliest specimens are of the type designated Homo habilis, known from several sites in eastern Africa and possibly from South Africa also.
R. Kromdraai Swartkrans al Va Rift Valley 0 0 1000 km 500 miles Fig. 11: The principal sites at which Australopithecus and Homo habilis fossils and/or well-dated Oldowan artefacts have been discovered of thirteen early hominids, including four juveniles, were found together. The most informative discovery, however, is a 40 per cent complete skeleton of a female, popularly known as Lucy. Her pelvis and leg bones indicate a well-developed upright posture. 2 metres (Johanson and Edey 1981). At Laetoli, aeolian tuffs have 34 afric an archaeolog y yielded remains which consist mainly of jaws and teeth (M.
In particular, since more plentiful data relating to absolute chronology are now available than could be employed by the writers of previous syntheses, and in view of the evidence for disparate rates of development in different areas, this book does not employ the conventional terminology based upon broad chrono-technological subdivisions such as ‘Late Stone Age’, ‘Neolithic’ or ‘Iron Age’. It has long been recognised that such terms cannot be precisely deﬁned, but their informal use has continued, often at the expense of clarity; they are avoided here.
African Archaeology by David W. Phillipson