By J.F. van Impe, P.A. Vanrolleghem, D.M. Iserentant
The scope of the sphere of biotechnological strategies is especially vast, masking such methods as fermentations for construction of high-valued professional chemical substances (e.g. pharmaceuticals), high-volume construction of meals and feeds (e.g. yoghurt, cheese, beer), in addition to organic waste therapy, dealing with good (composting), liquid (activated sludge) and gaseous wastes (biofilters). in comparison to different engineering disciplines, the advent of contemporary optimization and regulate options is lagging at the back of. major purposes should be pointed out. First, the residing organisms (or half thereof) which are important to those methods make the mathematical modeling of the approaches a tricky activity, and, because versions are valuable to the improvement of keep an eye on platforms, the online keep watch over challenge can be advanced. the opposite hassle stems from the absence, in general, of inexpensive and trustworthy instrumentation fitted to real-time monitoring.
In this e-book a few complex strategies is brought to house those difficulties. within the first half glossy online sensors are mentioned intimately (FIA, potential biomass size, membrane inlet mass spectrometry, circulation cytometry, microcalorimetry). within the moment half, novel model-based strategy analysis and keep an eye on suggestions are handled, together with advances in bioprocess modeling and id, info processing, software program sensor layout, and online keep watch over algorithms.
The e-book is directed at engineers, researchers, and scholars within the box of method regulate and structures thought as utilized to commercial biotechnological procedures, in addition to at bioengineers who've a few heritage on top of things engineering and need to extend their knowing of the way complex keep an eye on concept applies to organic procedures.
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Extra info for Advanced Instrumentation, Data Interpretation, and Control of Biotechnological Processes
The electrodes or the mass spectrometer behind the membrane are just transducing elements and quite reliable. The measurements obtained from the gas and from the liquid phase quantify, of course, different state variables but they are tightly linked via gas-liquid mass transfer. Pattern recognition can help to generally identify malfunctioning sensors in some cases . It is, however, interesting to realize that in the last few years more and more industrialists are convinced that the risk of implementing on-line measurements coupled to controllers, for instance, for feed, pays back due to reproducible and highly productive biotransformations with constantly high quality; for example, Rohner and Meyer  have implemented on-line FIA, HPLC and photometry with the respective controllers on the 15 m3 production scale.
4 Cellular Components or Activities The trick for analyzing a biocatalytic activity must also be exploited whenever the medium contains particulate matter because this, of course, would falsify any direct gravimetric determination. Herbert  also gives an overview of many different indirect methods. One such often-used method is the measurement of dehydrogenase activity, for example, INT dehydrogenase [117, 253, 254]. An extension is the determination of substances that are typical for either vegetative cells or spores such as ATP [92, 173, 277, 393], NAD(P)H, DNA [236, 277, 434], phospholipids or dipicolinic acid [176, 456]; see [37, 400] or  for application even in sewage sludge characterization.
An additional mechanical shield in the form of a mesh, grid or frit may be necessary to assure mechanical stability in the highly turbulent zone External chromatographs and FIA systems can be regularly recalibrated but the sterile interface cannot. A further possibility to gain some information about the reliability of a measurement is to mount a number (>1) of identical sensors in easy to compare positions and to check the individual signals for equality. This opportunity has been exploited for many years in other technologies.
Advanced Instrumentation, Data Interpretation, and Control of Biotechnological Processes by J.F. van Impe, P.A. Vanrolleghem, D.M. Iserentant