Read e-book online 1177 B.C. : the year civilization collapsed PDF

By Eric H. Cline

ISBN-10: 0691140898

ISBN-13: 9780691140896

In 1177 B.C., marauding teams recognized merely because the "Sea Peoples" invaded Egypt. The pharaoh's military and military controlled to defeat them, however the victory so weakened Egypt that it quickly slid into decline, as did lots of the surrounding civilizations. After centuries of brilliance, the civilized international of the Bronze Age got here to an abrupt and cataclysmic finish. Kingdoms fell like dominoes over the process quite a few a long time. not more Minoans or Mycenaeans. not more Trojans, Hittites, or Babylonians. The thriving financial system and cultures of the overdue moment millennium B.C., which had stretched from Greece to Egypt and Mesopotamia, abruptly ceased to exist, in addition to writing platforms, know-how, and enormous structure. however the Sea Peoples by myself couldn't have prompted such frequent breakdown. How did it happen?

In this significant new account of the motives of this "First darkish Ages," Eric Cline tells the gripping tale of the way the top used to be caused by way of a number of interconnected mess ups, starting from invasion and riot to earthquakes, drought, and the slicing of foreign exchange routes. Bringing to lifestyles the colourful multicultural international of those nice civilizations, he attracts a sweeping landscape of the empires and globalized peoples of the overdue Bronze Age and indicates that it used to be their very interdependence that hastened their dramatic cave in and ushered in a gloomy age that lasted centuries.

A compelling mixture of narrative and the most recent scholarship, 1177 B.C. sheds new gentle at the advanced ties that gave upward push to, and finally destroyed, the flourishing civilizations of the past due Bronze Age--and that set the degree for the emergence of classical Greece.

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Perhaps they simply didn’t fit. Hammurabi’s law code, which is the first to contain the saying “an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth” later made famous by the Hebrew Bible, does not mention any penalties for returning items such as shoes. It is a bit surprising that Hammurabi rejected the leather shoes, regardless of whether or not they fit, because they probably would have been both rare and unusual in his lands at the time, given the distance lying between Crete and Mesopotamia, that is, between what is now modern Greece and Syria/Iraq.

3–­8). To earlier scholars, this became 22 • • • Chapter One known as the “Minoan Thalassocracy,” from kratia meaning power and thalassos meaning sea. 20 Evans’s successor at the site, John Devitt Stringfellow Pendlebury, was extremely interested in the possible connections between Egypt and Crete; he excavated at the Egyptian site of Amarna (Akhenaten’s capital city, of which we will speak more below) as well as at Knossos. 21 Evans and Pendlebury found additional imported objects at Knossos, and it has become clear over the ensuing decades that the Minoans seem to have been in both the import and the export business, industriously networking with a number of foreign areas in addition to Egypt.

Eventually, the connection was made. In 1879, at a conference in London, the respected Assyriologist A. H. Sayce announced that the Hittites were located not in Canaan but rather in Anatolia; that is, in Turkey rather than in Israel/Lebanon/Syria/Jordan. His announcement was generally accepted, and the equation is still accepted today, but one has to wonder how the Bible could have gotten it so wrong. 34 • • • Chapter One The answer is actually fairly logical. Much as the British Empire stretched far from England proper, so too did the Hittite Empire stretch west in Turkey and south into Syria.

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1177 B.C. : the year civilization collapsed by Eric H. Cline

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